In the case of severe bleeding, you may require immediate hospitalization along with intravenous fluids, a gastrointestinal endoscopy, blood transfusions, proton pump inhibitors, or even emergency surgery.
In patients at high risk of rebleeding, scheduled repeat endoscopy may reduce the rebleeding rate and be cost-effective.
Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S.
Physical examination should assess for guarding, rebound tenderness, prior surgical scars, and sequelae of chronic liver disease.
In cases with regular vomiting episodes, hydration will need to be maintained to correct fluid deficits.
The most common underlying cause for oesophageal varices is alcoholic liver disease.