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Melena Gastrointestinal bleeding


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Diagnosis and Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

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Diagnosis and Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

In the case of severe bleeding, you may require immediate hospitalization along with intravenous fluids, a gastrointestinal endoscopy, blood transfusions, proton pump inhibitors, or even emergency surgery.

  • In patients at high risk of rebleeding, scheduled repeat endoscopy may reduce the rebleeding rate and be cost-effective.

  • Delaney JA, Opatrny L, Brophy JM, Suissa S.

Malena (2000)

Physical examination should assess for guarding, rebound tenderness, prior surgical scars, and sequelae of chronic liver disease.

  • In cases with regular vomiting episodes, hydration will need to be maintained to correct fluid deficits.

  • The most common underlying cause for oesophageal varices is alcoholic liver disease.